Compound Claims







Df.  A compound claim is composed of other claims, but has to be viewed as just one claim
 

Types of compound claims


Df.  Contradictory of a claim is a statement that always has opposite truth value


Excluding Possibilities (Disjunctive Syllogism) and False Dilemma


Valid Reasoning with Conditionals


Invalid (Usually Weak) Reasoning with Conditionals
 

Difference between If and Only If


Reasoning in a Chain


 

Counterarguments








Direct Way of Refuting Arguments


Indirect Way of Refuting Arguments


Bad Attempts at Refuting Arguments


 

General Claims
 

Issue:  We need to know how to reason with claims that are asserted about

all, or some, or a few, or no things







Use of Quantifiers and Inclusion versus Exclusion


Some Valid Types of Universal Reasoning


Some Invalid (Weak) Types of Reasoning from Universals and Particulars


Arguments Using Almost All and Very Few