Analogies





Df. of Reasoning by Analogy in Argument:


Status of Argument from Analogy


Example of Firefighters and Soldiers


Keys Points for Evaluating Analogies


 

Numbers




Issue:  We use numbers to be exact, but it is easy to be mislead when reasoning with them
 

Percentages Can Be Misleading


Principles Based on an Understanding of Percentages


 

Generalizing




Df. of Generalizing:  We conclude a claim about a group, the population, from a claim about some part of it, the sample

Df. of Generalization:  Sometimes we refer to an entire argument, not just the conclusion, as a generalization

Samples


Means to Attain Accurate Sample


Gamblerís Fallacy:  A bad argument that a run of events of certain kind makes a run of contrary events more likely in order to even up the probabilities

Premises for a Good Generalization


Risk

Cause and Effect

Claim:  if the cause is present, the effect almost certainly follows

Necessary Criteria for Cause and Effect