Df. of Reasoning by Analogy in Argument:

Status of Argument from Analogy

Example of Firefighters and Soldiers

Keys Points for Evaluating Analogies



Issue:  We use numbers to be exact, but it is easy to be mislead when reasoning with them

Percentages Can Be Misleading

Principles Based on an Understanding of Percentages



Df. of Generalizing:  We conclude a claim about a group, the population, from a claim about some part of it, the sample

Df. of Generalization:  Sometimes we refer to an entire argument, not just the conclusion, as a generalization


Means to Attain Accurate Sample

Gamblerís Fallacy:  A bad argument that a run of events of certain kind makes a run of contrary events more likely in order to even up the probabilities

Premises for a Good Generalization


Cause and Effect

Claim:  if the cause is present, the effect almost certainly follows

Necessary Criteria for Cause and Effect