Life, Vindication, and Hope

13.  Life

Philosophers on Life and Death

Moral Perspective

Living and Dying

14.  Vindication

Susan Jacoby distinguished vindication and vindictiveness

Two Strategies for Vindication

Value of Upholding Core Principles

Gandhi on Means and Ends

Samuel Huntingtonís Theory of the Clash of Civilizations

Govier Rejects Huntingtonís View

15.  Hope

Logical Status of Hope

Stoic View

Govier Rejects Stoic View

Hope As Realistic


Immanuel Kant on Hope

Govierís Conclusion