Life, Vindication, and Hope





13.  Life

Philosophers on Life and Death


Moral Perspective


Living and Dying

14.  Vindication

Susan Jacoby distinguished vindication and vindictiveness

Two Strategies for Vindication


Value of Upholding Core Principles


Gandhi on Means and Ends


Samuel Huntingtonís Theory of the Clash of Civilizations


Govier Rejects Huntingtonís View

15.  Hope

Logical Status of Hope


Stoic View


Govier Rejects Stoic View


Hope As Realistic


Despair


Immanuel Kant on Hope


Govierís Conclusion