From Medieval to Modern Philosophy
 
 

The Medieval Period: 400-1400  CE (5th-15th)


Major Figures

Character of Scholasticism Breakdown (from Late Medieval to Early Modern: 14th-17th)


Differences between Medieval and Modern Philosophy


Movements in the West During the Modern Period (16th-19th)

Cultural:  Enlightenment Rationalism


Political:  Absolutism to Parliamentarianism


Economic: Commercialism to Capitalism


 

Overview of Continental Rationalism and British Empiricism
 
 

Development of Continental Rationalists' Concept of Substance


Substance Metaphysics and Mathematical Deduction

--  Arguments for the existence of God
-- Deductions from alleged certainty of self
  o Reason a priori from innate ideas  (all truth)
  o Principle of Sufficient Reason:  rational explanation  (everything)
Descartes initiates method of pure deduction


Spinoza rejects dualism

Leibniz develops pluralism
 

Experimental Basis of Knowledge in British Empiricism


Nature of the Experimental Method


Locke founds British Empiricism


Berkeley attacks conclusion of material substance

Hume eliminates spiritual substance as well