Continental Rationalists:  Descartes, Spinoza, and Leipniz

Philosophical Biography of René Descartes (1596-1650)

Early Life

Education and Military Experience Travel:   23-32 (1619-1628) Personality and Death


Philosophical Biography of Benedict Spinoza (1632-1677)

Jewish community in Amsterdam

Spinoza's dates Spinoza's Education Excommunication Aftermath of excommunication



Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716)


Career and Scholarship

Chronology of Leibniz's Major Philosophical Writings (40 vol. collected works)