Key Terms in Saussure

 

 

 

Speech

 

(langage)

 

totality of language

 

/          \

 

            Language                           Speech

 

            (la langue)                          (la parole)

 

            sign system                         speaking

 

 

 

 

la langue                                   la parole

 

--  Passive                              --  Active

 

--  Essential                           --  Accidental

      

--  Homogeneous                   --  Heterogeneous

 

--  Social Product                   --  Individual  Execution

           (Static)                       --  (Non-Transformative)

           [synchronically]                [synchronically]

 

 

Social Sciences                         Natural Sciences

 

Geisteswissenschaft                 Naturwissenschaft

 

\

       General Psychology

              \

              Social Psychology

                      \

                      Semiology

                             \

                             Linguistics

                             /      \   

              Synchronic          Diachronic

 

 


Sign

(signe)

/      \

                                                  Signified                 Signifer

                                                  (signifie)                (signifiant)

 

                                                  Sound Image           Concept

 


Linguistics as Objective Science

Focuses on la langue

/          \

                                          Synchronic                        Diachronic

 

                                          --  Point                              --  Successive Points

 

                                          --  (Frozen Moment)          -- (Temporal Span)

 

                                          --  Immutable                     --  Mutable

 

                                          --  Static                             -- Evolutionary

 

 

la langue as a System of Signs

 

       Grammar +

Vocabulary +

Pronunciation System

 

 

Diacritical Theory of Meaning

 

       Finite Lexicon at each Synchrony

 

       Words in each Synchrony Stand in Opposition

 

       Meaning of Word in Not In-Itself

              Meaning is in the Oppositions Among Signs

              Meaning is in Difference

 

       Aribrary Nature of the Sign

       -- Individual Cannot Change Sign  in Synchrony

       -- Signs and Oppositions Vary Diachronically