Paul Ricoeur

 

Structure, Word, Event  (1968)

 

The Presuppositions of Structural Analysis

 

1.  Empirical Science:  object  (109)

 

2.  Synchronics vs. diachronics:  static

 

3.  Only relations  (110)

 

4.  Closed:  no outside/only internal

 

5.  Non-referential

 

Speech As Discourse

 

1.  Formal exclusions:  speech and history (111)

 

2.  Additional exclusion:  saying something about something  (112)

 

3.  Complementary points

 

Structure and Event  (116)

 

1.  Focus on syntax:  generative grammar

 

2. Ricoeur adds semantic:  word trades  (69/118)

 


Creativity in Language:  Word, Polysemy, Metaphor  (1973)

 

 

The Sentence as Infinite Use of Finite Means  (121)

 

o     I-Thou structure

o     Part of semantic order

 

o     Sentence is extralinguistic

o     Sentence gives form to mind and world

 

 

Word and Polysemy  (124) 

o     Features

¤      Economy of code  (125)

¤      Context of message

o     Dialectic:  finite means and infinite use

 

o     Ambiguity is a feature of discourse

¤      More than one way of interpreting a string of words

¤      Pathological

o     Polysemy is a feature of words

¤      Several senses for a name

¤      Normal phenomenon

 

 

Polysemy & Strategies of Language  (127):  Three types

 

o     Communication

o     Polysemy reduction

 

o     Not communication, but argumentation  (129)

o     Definition:  teach terms (quantity)

o     Polysemy eradication

 

o     [Re-description]

o     [Polysemy expansion]

 

 

Metaphor and Polysemy

 

o     Summarizes view that metaphor is a figure of speech that conveys no information

o     Criticizes this substitution theory of metaphor (130-131)

 

o     First, not belong to lexicon

o     Later, part of literal sense

o     Finally, added to polysemy of word

  

o     Confuse logical boundaries  (131)

o     Re-describe reality  (132)

¤      Novel reality

¤      Metamorphosis of language and reality

o     Increase our sense of reality