Paul Ricoeur


Structure, Word, Event  (1968)


The Presuppositions of Structural Analysis


1.  Empirical Science:  object  (109)


2.  Synchronics vs. diachronics:  static


3.  Only relations  (110)


4.  Closed:  no outside/only internal


5.  Non-referential


Speech As Discourse


1.  Formal exclusions:  speech and history (111)


2.  Additional exclusion:  saying something about something  (112)


3.  Complementary points


Structure and Event  (116)


1.  Focus on syntax:  generative grammar


2. Ricoeur adds semantic:  word trades  (69/118)


Creativity in Language:  Word, Polysemy, Metaphor  (1973)



The Sentence as Infinite Use of Finite Means  (121)


o     I-Thou structure

o     Part of semantic order


o     Sentence is extralinguistic

o     Sentence gives form to mind and world



Word and Polysemy  (124) 

o     Features

¤      Economy of code  (125)

¤      Context of message

o     Dialectic:  finite means and infinite use


o     Ambiguity is a feature of discourse

¤      More than one way of interpreting a string of words

¤      Pathological

o     Polysemy is a feature of words

¤      Several senses for a name

¤      Normal phenomenon



Polysemy & Strategies of Language  (127):  Three types


o     Communication

o     Polysemy reduction


o     Not communication, but argumentation  (129)

o     Definition:  teach terms (quantity)

o     Polysemy eradication


o     [Re-description]

o     [Polysemy expansion]



Metaphor and Polysemy


o     Summarizes view that metaphor is a figure of speech that conveys no information

o     Criticizes this substitution theory of metaphor (130-131)


o     First, not belong to lexicon

o     Later, part of literal sense

o     Finally, added to polysemy of word


o     Confuse logical boundaries  (131)

o     Re-describe reality  (132)

¤      Novel reality

¤      Metamorphosis of language and reality

o     Increase our sense of reality