The slow but persistent rise in awareness of racial, ethnic, and gender oppression and the beginning efforts of liberation from within the oppressed groups offer hope that even the most deeply held and least explicitly challenged predispositions of culture might be examined

Duane Cady, From Warism to Pacifism, p. 10


Warism: war is morally justifiable in principle and often in fact
  • Warism is dominant assumption: taken for granted
  • Myth of coupling national sovereignty and the capacity to wage war

Pacifism: war, by its nature, is morally wrong and humans should work for peaceful resolution of conflicts
  • Pacifism is not taken seriously: rejected without examination
  • Myth of coupling pacifism with naive and misguided outlook

Obstacles to Pacifism


1. Primary cultural obstacle is warism

2. Confusion of pacifism with passivism

3. Reduction of pacifism to most extreme version

Cultural Revolutions and

the Critique of Myths

Past Conceptual Shifts Largely Completed

Current Conceptual Shifts Under Way
Future Conceptual Shift
Just-War Continuum


Common View of War

War Realism


Just Warism


Jus ad bellum


Jus in bello