Nonviolent Model of National Security



Transition from Military Defense to Civilian Defense


      Systems of military defense:   products of warism


      System of civilian defense:   approach under pacifism



Pledge/Performance of Non-Violent Resistance


      Know in advance the difficulty, if not the impossibility, of control


      Similarity and Difference to Military Defense


-- Like any credible defense, not forsake moral obligation to defend the innocent


-- Unlike virtually all nuclear defense and most conventional defense, if used, can avoid large-scale destruction of human life and the environment

Military vs Civilian Defense



      Theory of deterrence


-- Military defense

      Often, if not always, immoral

      Technological advances make more ineffective


-- Civilian defense

      At least in some of its forms is moral

      In many cases can be effective



      Plan of Action


-- Military defense

      Frequently, if not always,  immoral

      Many times is ineffective


-- Civilian defense

      Generally, though not necessarily, moral

      In many circumstances can be effective



      Type of Strategy


-- Best:       moral and effective system


-- Worst:    immoral and ineffective system


-- Mixed:   choice of a moral but ineffective system or an immoral but effective system

Theory of Deterrence:  Military vs Civilian Defense



    Military Defense and Standing Military Organization


-- Ever more sophisticated & destructive technologies


-- Very capital intensive


-- Even higher level of threatened violence



      Civilian Defense and Deterrence


-- Maintains trained citizen resisters in place of a standing military organization


-- Labor intensive


-- Civilian defense also relies on a threat


      Threatened with massive non-cooperation


      Avoids moral burden of justifying potential mass destruction of human life

Plan of Action:  Military vs Civilian Defense



      Military strikes against the enemy


-- Troops comprise minority of the population in war and peace


-- Majority of citizens avoid close scrutiny of defense policy and the international actions undertaken by the military



      Civilian defense also has a plan of action


-- Train citizens prior to aggression against nation


-- Important differences


      Effective civilian defense involves training majority of the citizens of the nation:  maximum distribution of responsibility


      Avoids annihilation, if deterrence fails


-- Like nuclear and conventional deterrence, it may fail


-- Does not respond in kind

Type of Strategy:  Military vs Civilian Defense



      Military Defense and Theory of Victory


-- Deploy troops and weapons until victory is achieved or all resources are exhausted


-- Accept annihilation of military, and perhaps even population, before submitting to conquest


-- If occupied, guerrilla attacks:  violence as response to violence



      Civilian Defense and Practice of Non-Defeat


-- Occupation as only the beginning of the struggle


-- May not be more successful than guerrilla attacks


      Distinctive because avoids Manichean reduction of the enemy to an irredeemably evil adversary


      Enemy always remains human, that is, someone with whom communication and agreement may always be possible

The Offensive Use of Defense Systems



      Military offense


-- Military offenses can range from small-scale strikes to full-scale invasion and occupation


-- Military offense seeks to depose of the government by introducing violent force from the outside



      Civilian offense


-- Civilian offenses can range from intervention against a nation to the introduction of sufficient civilian defenders to disrupt the ability of the government to control the nation


-- Civilian defense seeks to delegitimate the government by cultivating non-violent non-cooperation from the inside



      Violation of the sovereignty of another nation


-- Morally, intervention may be justified, if certain principles of human rights and social justice are held higher than the autonomy of the state


-- Pragmatically, unless civilian defense can be used offensively, advocates of military defense can argue insufficiency of civilian defense since governments continue to greatly harm their own peoples

Between Silence and Violence



      Intervention:  Justifications and Limitations


-- Silence as tacit sanction of injustice


-- Counterproductiveness of violence as response to injustice


      If war, also the injustice of its violence


-- War, even if waged to eradicate an injustice, involves injustice


-- Appear caught between horns of a dilemma


      But not all interventions against injustice are violent



      National security and global justice as between silence and violence


-- Diplomacy properly functions in this continuum


-- Civilian defense and offense as complementary to diplomacy


      Clausewitz termed war "politics by other means"


      Civilian defense should be understood as "politics by the same means"

Peace-Making as Between Silence and Violence



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State terrorism


Civil war



Interna-tional War